Lithography comes from Ancient Greek λίθος, lithos, meaning "stone", and γράφειν, graphein, meaning "to write". It's a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a metal plate with a smooth surface. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material. Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, etching the portions of the stone that were not protected by the grease-based image. When the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water; an oil-based ink could then be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a blank paper sheet, producing a printed page. This traditional technique is still used in some fine art printmaking applications.
Monoprinting is a form of printmaking that has lines or images that can only be made once, unlike most printmaking, where there are multiple originals. There are many techniques of monoprinting. Examples of standard printmaking techniques which can be used to make monoprints include lithography, woodcut, and etching.